Hardware and Software

Mutator VR uses the HTC Vive virtual reality headset which provides room-scale tracking, two wireless hand-held controllers, and two channels of audio. Graphics are rendered in real-time on an Nvidia GeForce GTX 1080.

Custom software is written using a variety of technologies based on OpenGL/GLSL and OpenVR. Mutation Space is written in Javascript using WebGL, WebVR, and three.js and uses SuperCollider for sound synthesis. Vortex is implemented in C++ using the AlloSystem virtual environment toolkit and Gamma sound synthesis library.


Mutator VR allows the user to take part in the experience by granting interactive control of the forms, system dynamics, and environment. The virtual scenes are entirely procedurally generated from mathematical rules and can be morphed continuously from one to the next. This means each experience of Mutator VR is truly unique and the user is free to explore an endless array of unseen and unheard worlds.

Academic Papers and Books

Academic Paper: W.Latham, S.Todd, P.Todd, L.Putnam. Exhibiting Mutator VR : Procedural Art Evolves to Virtual Reality (2019). Leonardo Journal. MIT Press.

 Academic Paper: L.Putnam, S.Todd, W.Latham. Abstract Shape Synthesis from Linear Combinations of Clelia Curves. (2019). The 8th ACM/EG Expressive Symposium EXPRESSIVE 2019.

 Academic Paper: L.Putnam, W.Latham. Flow Fields and Agents for Immersive Interaction in Mutator VR: Vortex (2018). Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Journal. MIT Press.

Evolutionary Art and Computers.
Academic Press, London 1992
Todd, S. and Latham, W.

The Emergence and Growth of Evolutionary Art 1980-1993 (link)
Leonardo, MIT Press
May 2013
N. Lambert, W. Latham & F.F. Leymarie

Computational Ecosystems in Evolutionary Art, and Their Potential for the Future of Virtual Worlds (link)
Handbook on 3D3C Platforms: Applications & Tools for 3D Systems for Community, Creation & Commerce, Springer (pp 441-474)
December 2015
R. Antunes, F.F. Leymarie & W. Latham

On Writing and Reading Artistic Computational Ecosystems (link)
Artificial Life / MIT Press
August 2015
R. Antunes, F.F. Leymarie & W. Latham

Inclusion of work in Art Books.

“When the Machine Made Art”.
Grant D Taylor.
Bloomsbury Academic. ISBN: 9781623562724

“New Media in Late 20th-Century Art”.
Michael Rush.
Thames and Hudson.

“Digital Art”.
Christiane Paul.
Thames and Hudson.

Metacreation. Art and Artifical Life”
Michael Whitelaw.
MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-23234-0.

“Out Of Control. The New Biology of Machine.
Kevin Kelly
Addison-Wesley, 1994